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Oxygen therapy for respiratory diseases
- Categories:Oxygen Knowledge
- Time of issue:2021-05-19 13:21
Oxygen therapy for respiratory diseases
The human respiratory system consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. The lungs and trachea are the main respiratory organs. The lung is located in the thoracic cavity, divided into left and right parts, the left lung has two lobes, and the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are mainly composed of bronchi and alveoli, while the alveoli are composed of very thin epithelial cells. The total number of alveoli is 750 million, with a total area of 50-100 square meters, which provides enough places for human gas exchange. The main function of the respiratory system is to ensure that the systemic venous blood can have the opportunity to carry out effective gas exchange in the lungs, so that it can take in enough oxygen to supply the needs of systemic metabolism, and eliminate the amount of carbon dioxide to keep the carbon dioxide content and pH in the body relatively stable . Respiratory insufficiency refers to this insufficiency of exchange, which is the main factor leading to various diseases of the respiratory system.
The respiratory tract below the throat is collectively referred to as the trachea, a circular tube composed of cartilage rings and soft tissues, extending downward into the left and right bronchial tubes. After entering the hilum, the left and right bronchi branched layer by layer, the more branched, the thinner, and finally connected with each alveolar. Between the alveoli and the capillaries, there is a very thin alveolar capillary membrane. Oxygen travels from the alveoli to the capillaries through the alveolar capillary strands, and then binds to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The air in the alveoli is constantly renewed by fresh air from the outside, and there is continuous blood flowing through the capillaries, which is a necessary condition for ensuring gas exchange. The normal function of pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation requires the adjustment of nerve, body fluid and blood gas levels, as well as the coordinated activities of related organ systems. Common diseases of the respiratory system include various types of bronchitis, bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Common chronic diseases of the lungs include emphysema and pulmonary heart disease. There are also lung diseases caused by external factors, such as pneumonia, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and silicosis. Regardless of the respiratory disorder, it is necessary to allow the patient to inhale fresh oxygen while taking the medicine to increase blood oxygen content and prevent carbon dioxide from accumulating in the body.
Bronchitis and bronchial wheezing
Tracheitis is an extremely common disease in the population. Acute inflammation of the trachea and bronchi occurs repeatedly, and over time, emphysema and pulmonary heart disease will be complicated. Although chronic bronchitis is not as life-threatening as cardiovascular diseases, many chronic bronchial patients have long-term cough and asthma, which is very painful, and a considerable number of patients lose their ability to work prematurely. According to preliminary statistics, the incidence of various types of bronchitis is 4%, while the incidence of middle-aged and elderly people over 50 years old is 15%, which is 8 times higher than that of patients under 50 years old. Clinically, there are the following types of tracheitis:
Chronic bronchitis patients are mostly people with reduced body resistance or allergic physique. Cold, smoking, air pollution, climate change and other external factors can promote the onset of chronic bronchitis, and 60 to 90% of chronic bronchitis patients are caused by cold Or catch a cold and have an acute attack. Especially the elderly’s respiratory system, the trachea. Tissue fibrosis of the bronchi and lungs, cilia loss and weakened activity, decreased lung function, decreased secretion of immunoglobulins in the respiratory tract, and decreased phagocytic function of macrophages, which affected the defense and clearance functions of the respiratory tract and was prone to infection. In addition, smoking is more harmful to chronic bronchitis. It can inhibit the ciliary movement of the trachea, weaken the phagocytosis of phagocytes, promote the increase of bronchial secretion, and easily induce bronchospasm. With the development of modern industry, the occurrence of chronic bronchitis is closely related to exposure to industrial dust and toxic gases (such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen chloride, etc.). Severe chronic bronchitis, cough, sputum, and even bloodshot eyes in the sputum when it is onset, accompanied by low-grade fever. Doctors usually use various antibiotics based on the patient's condition, such as penicillin, cephalosporin, erythromycin, etc.; take aminophylline, isoproterenol tablets or sprays when wheezing. Due to the prolonged condition, bronchial secretions are often blocked, so that oxygen ventilation and ventilation are obstructed, the body is in a state of hypoxia, and the body's metabolism cannot proceed normally. Therefore, the patient's home should be equipped with oxygen production equipment to inhale oxygen frequently to reduce the burden on the heart and lungs and physical exertion. Bronchial wheezing Bronchial wheezing, also known as bronchial asthma, is a common and frequently-occurring disease, and it is mostly affected in autumn and winter. About half of patients with bronchial wheezing are onset before the age of 12, so the prevalence of children is higher than that of adults. Asthma is an allergic disease. Patients exposed to allergenic substances, such as pollen, dust, mites, animal fur, human or animal dander, and various organic dusts, may cause the disease. If the patient suffered from allergic diseases in childhood, such as infant eczema, allergic rhinitis, etc., most of his family members also have allergic diseases. Allergic substances cause tracheal spasm, narrowing, blockage of secretions, repeated attacks, prolonged and difficult to heal, caused. Has lung function damage.
Before the onset of bronchial wheezing (bronchial asthma), there are usually coughing, chest tightness, or continuous sneezing, followed by wheezing, holding breath, and phlegm. The patient cannot lie on his back when it is onset, severe cold sweat on his forehead, purple lips and fingers, each attack lasts several hours or even days. Due to hypoxia and other pathological factors, patients can cause thoracic deformities, emphysema, pulmonary heart disease, and even barrel chests. Doctors usually use anti-asthmatic drugs such as aminophylline, isoproterenol, prednisone, dexamethasone orally or sprays to relieve asthma. At the same time, chlorpheniramine, phenazine, and cyprofenol hydrochloride are not desensitized.
No matter what kind of medicine is used, oxygen therapy is an essential part. When an asthma attack occurs, the respiratory tract spasms and becomes thinner, and secretions accumulate in the bronchus, making the respiratory tract in a state of blockage. Especially when asthma persists, sputum is blocked in the small bronchi, so that oxygen cannot pass through the airway to the alveoli, and cannot enter the human organs and tissues through gas exchange, which makes the body in a hypoxic state, resulting in different heart, brain and kidneys. Degree of damage. In particular, children with persistent asthma attacks, and obvious hypoxia each time, seriously affect their mental and physical normal development.
In summary, oxygen therapy is an important part of the treatment of bronchial wheezing. When the patient inhales pure oxygen, the blood oxygen tension can be quickly increased to prevent tissues and organs from being damaged by hypoxia. The cyanosis of the patient's lips and nails can be quickly relieved, and the asthma can be alleviated.
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