Oxygen care for the elderly and oxygen therapy for senile diseases
- Categories:Oxygen Knowledge
- Time of issue:2021-05-19 13:22
Oxygen care for the elderly and oxygen therapy for senile diseases
According to the general growth and development changes of human physiology, generally the development stage is before 25 years old, the mature stage is 25-44 years old, and the decline stage is entered after 45 years old. Specifically, a person’s life can be divided into 8 periods: 0-5 years old is infancy, 6-11 years old is childhood, 12-17 years old is adolescence, 18-24 years old is adolescence, and 25-44 years old is In the prime of life, 45 to 59 years old is the early old age, 60 to 89 years old is the old age, and 90 years old and above is the longevity period. Geriatrics usually regard 45-59 years as the pre-senile period, 60-79 years as the low-age old age, 80-89 years as the advanced old age, 90-99 years as the longevity period, and over 100 years as the lifespan. The latest classification of the Chinese Geriatrics Association is: young people under 44 years old, pre-senile age 45-59 years old, elderly people 60-89 years old, and long-lived elderly people over 90 years old.
Aging is the change in old age, also called aging. Aging is not a phenomenon that occurs suddenly after a person passes middle age, but is the result of the continuous changes in the various organs and systems of the body and the personal spiritual world throughout the life process. It is accumulated over a long period of time sooner or later. Obviously manifested. Some scholars believe that personal aging begins at birth. In this sense, the process of human life is the process of aging.
As a living organism, the human body must undergo a unified and complete physiological life process from embryo to birth, development, maturity, aging, and death in accordance with the laws of biology. As an organism with spiritual and social activities. The development, maturation, aging, and death of the human body are restricted by spiritual and social factors.
Therefore, personal aging includes five aspects:
Aging is the increase in the cumulative time of the life process.
Physiological aging After the human tissue reaches maturity, as time continues to pass and age continues to grow, a series of changes in the physiology and anatomy of the tissue structure and physiological functions occur.
Active aging is caused by physical aging, resulting in decreased sensations such as sight, hearing, touch, and smell, decreased reaction abilities such as memory, association, and thinking, decreased physical, mental, and emotional tolerance and duration, and decreased adaptability to internal and external environmental changes , Leading to a decline in overall mobility.
Psychological aging The psychological changes caused by age aging, physical aging and active aging.
Social aging is caused by the changes in social roles, social relations, social status, and interpersonal relationships caused by the above-mentioned aging. The degeneration of physiological functions and physical fitness that occur after an individual's maturity period is the basis of all aging and belongs to normal aging. Various diseases can accelerate the process of physical aging, which is called disease-induced aging. Psychological weakness can also accelerate the process of physical aging, which is called psychological aging. Physical weaknesses, diseases, especially psychological weaknesses, make it difficult for individuals to adapt to the social environment and cope with changes in the social environment. They can also accelerate the process of physical aging, which is called social aging.
Aging and hypoxia
After entering old age, the basic physiological functions of the human body are degraded: cell division, atrophy and degeneration, basal metabolic rate decreases, tissue elasticity decreases, connective tissue degeneration, nervous system degeneration, nerve-muscle reaction and conduction speed slow down, bone The strength and toughness of the road are reduced, and various factors that regulate the stability of the internal circulation are obstructed. These basic physiological functions are degraded, leading to the aging of various tissue systems throughout the body. There are:
The aging of the cardiovascular system The cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels of various sizes throughout the body. The heart is mainly composed of cardiomyocytes. With age, myocardial cells gradually decrease, accompanied by the deposition of adipose tissue, calcium salts and lipofuscin, thickening of myocardial membrane and fibrosis. The aging of blood vessels is manifested by the thickening of the vascular intima, the narrowing of the vascular lumen, the increase in the thickness and hardness of the blood vessel wall, and the decrease in elasticity, resulting in a decrease in blood flow and a prolonged cycle of blood circulation, resulting in insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues. Generally speaking, the aging of the cardiovascular system begins the earliest. From the age of 25, the function of the heart is significantly reduced, and blood pressure also tends to increase. The heart of a 25-year-old young person can deliver 4 liters of oxygen per minute to the cells. By the age of 70, it can drop by half, and can only deliver 2 liters of oxygen.
The aging of the respiratory system In the respiratory system, the aging changes of the lungs are the most obvious: the alveolar wall thins and the elasticity decreases; the microvessels of the alveolar wall decrease; the alveolar cavity enlarges; the small bronchi tends to expand, and the entire lung elasticity decreases. Coupled with the sclerosis of the rib cartilage, the rib cage becomes hard and decreased, and the activity of the intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles is weakened, resulting in a greatly reduced ventilation function. An obvious sign is that the residual air volume of the alveoli of the elderly has increased: the residual air volume of the alveoli of a 60-year-old healthy person is almost double that of a 30-year-old healthy person. Decreased respiratory function and aggravated changes in heart function, forming a degenerative interaction between the heart and lungs, are an important part of the aging process.
The aging of the central system The aging of the central system is manifested in the decrease in the number of nerve cells, the deposition of lipofuscin and other substances in the nerve cells, and the decrease of nerve response and conduction speed. These aging changes. Wood is only manifested as the weakening of thinking and motor functions, and more importantly, it has a comprehensive impact on the entire body function. Often due to disturbances in the stability of the internal environment, it leads to metabolic changes, blood and oxygen supply obstacles to the brain and myocardium, causing high Blood pressure, atherosclerosis, etc.
In addition, the digestive, endocrine, immune, exercise and other systems of the elderly have corresponding aging. The aging of each system affects each other, especially the decline in the content of various enzymes in the body and the function of the endocrine system, forming a comprehensive aging of the overall physiological function.
As a result of the above physiological aging, the amount of oxygen taken by the elderly is reduced, the ability to transport oxygen is reduced, and the efficiency of using oxygen is reduced, so that the entire body tissue is in a chronic hypoxic state of varying degrees.
Woiwitz et al. measured in 1969: The arterial blood oxygen partial pressure decreases by an average of 3mmHg for every 1 year increase in the elderly.
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